Tessenderlo, Belgium—PIVKAII or des-carboxy promothrombin is an abnormal prothrombin without carboxylation of 10 glutamic acid residues at its N-terminus and is devoid of coagulation activity.

PIVKAII is raised due to vitamin K deficiency in normal patients, but also in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

HCC is responsible for half-million deaths worldwide per year (all liver cancers represent 3% of all cancer cases).